Early Maps

In 1787, under instruction from Thomas Carleton, George Sproule, Surveyor General of New Brunswick, visited Madawaska in order to complete a survey of the area between Lake Temiscouata and Grand Falls for the purpose of settling international and provincial boundaries. It was on this 1787 survey that, along with the Acadian lots, a large plot of land was outlined for the Maliseet people. An accompanying note states, “The Indians require the tract of Land included within the red lines to be reserved for their use. Except Kelly’s Lot.”[1]

Various other maps portray a Maliseet village at the confluence of the Madawaska and St. John Rivers. These include maps by Joseph Peach in 1765[2] and by Isaac Hedden in 1792[3]. A de facto reserve has existed at Madawaska, probably since 1787[4]. Today, Maliseet people are divided on 8 reserves throughout New Brunswick, Quebec and Maine.


[1]George, Sproule, 1787. “A Survey from the Great Falls of the River St. John to the head of the Lake Tamasquatat with part of the Portage leading from that Lake to the River St. Lawrence.” LAC, NMC 18184.

[2] Joseph Peach, 1762 “A plan of the River of St. John's, from Fort Frederick in the Bay of Fundy, to the River of Medouesqua; with the Lake of Temescouta, and the Grand Portage from thence to the River of St. Lawrence. Surveyed by Lt. Joseph Peach of the 4th Regt. 1762.” LAC, MIKAN 4125325. 

[3] Isaac Hedden, 1792. “A plan of the River Saint John in the Province of New Brunswick with the post route or communication by that river from the City of Saint John on the Bay of Fundy to the River Saint Lawrence. Copied from a plan, compiled from actual survey, by the Surveyor General of the said province by Isaac Hedden, D. Surveyor. Fredericton, 4th December, 1792.” LAC, MIKAN 4125552.

[4] Bartlett, Richard H. “Indian Reserves in the Atlantic Provinces of Canada.” Studies in Aboriginal Rights No. 9, University of Saskatchewan Native Law Centre, 1986, 17. Bartlett states that a “de facto recognition accorded the reserve”.